Footnotes

22 September 2541

Footnotes

(1) The Five Precepts are the basic principles of conduct of moral restraints through body and speech. They are:

  1. Abstaining from killing: not taking life or doing bodily harm.
  2. Abstaining from taking what is not given: not stealing, pilfering or filching; not violating (others’) properties.
  3. Abstaining from sexual misconduct; not violating the loved of cherished ones of others.
  4. Abstaining from lying: not telling lies or using deceptive speech; not violating other people or their interests through speech.
  5. Abstaining from alcohol and intoxicants: causing heedlessness and drunkenness, and leading to damage and blunders such as accidents due to lack of mindfulness.

(2) The Six Directions are people around one’s life, to whom one requires to perform a set of duties according to their status of relations. They are:

  1. The front direction: those who come before, i.e., parents.
  2. The right direction: those worthy of respect, i.e., teachers.
  3. The rearward direction: those who come after, i.e., spouse and children.
  4. The left direction: those who are alongside, i.e., friends and associates.
  5. The lower direction: those who support, i.e., employees and workers.
  6. The upper direction: those who are high in virtue, i.e., monks.

(3) The Six Channels to Ruin are six things to avoid:

  1. Being addicted to drink and drugs,
  2. Always reveling in night life,
  3. Being bent on entertainment,
  4. Being addicted to gambling,
  5. Consorting with evil friends,
  6. Being chronically lazy.

(4) Sīla (Virtue), Samādhi (Concentration) and Paññā (Wisdom) are three phases of training (Sikkhā) which form the integral path to the Enlightenment- Nirvana, the extinction of suffering, namely:

  1. Adhi-Sīla Sikkhā or Training in Morality, which include Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood. The purpose is to abstain from evil and do good.
  2. Adhi-Citta (Samādhi) Sikkhā or Mental Training, which include Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. The practice will maintain the mind and mental properties in a state of balance.
  3. Adhi-Paññā Sikkhā or Training in Wisdom, which include Right Understanding and Right Intention.

(5) Negative ethic is based on self-restraint or obligation; whereas positive ethic is based on harmony and happiness.

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